#5 – Law – pre assignment 

If the autonomous development enter level 3 in SAE classification or even higher, the responsibility of human will gradually decrease. But will rise the responsibility of manufacturers.  It may make the company can not afford such a huge duty. 

Is no doubt about that the law of autonomous had just start to develop. Although some government have the power to manage the vehicle on the road. But there still an official law for self driving car. 

The responsibility question  of autonomous

Product responsibility 

  • In most self-driving car crash, it may apply using traditional law for the accident. But in the framework of fault liability, the driver’s action needs to be measured. It isn’t fit in autonomous. The plaintiff may stand for that manufacturers need to be response for the accident. 

Who will take the repose 

    • Many people think that there isn’t a clear answer to the responsibility in autonomous accident. But there are some self-driving vehicles manufacturer try to solve the problem. For example, Google, Tesla, Benz announce that they will take all the responsibility if the accident is cause by self-driving technology. Although it can’t stop the paintiff sue the driver or the owner, but it will increase the willing of purchasing autonomous vehicles. 
    廣告

    #4 – Personality and Teamwork – pre assignment 

    After finishing the survey, the report is quite interesting. I got moderate in every section. The result really surprise me. I think that I will get in high score in some section. 

    In extraversion, the only category that I get high is gregariousness. It says that I need to be careful not to be overbearing me thoughts. I had never notice that before, maybe I should take care of it. 

    In emotionality section, the frustration section is the lowest. It the most thing that surprise me after doing this survey.in my opinion,I think  I am not easily to lose my temper,but some times I will get conflict with others. However, not easy to lose temper always help me find out what’s wrong and solve the problem. 

    In conscientious, the average score is much higher than other section. I’m quite proud that I can get such a high score in this area. It really make me have more confidence. 

    In agreeableness, the results shows me that I really trust others. I can’t tell that is good or bad. But I can sure when the team need to cooperate together, I will put all my efforts in it. 

    Here comes to the last section, openness. In this area, I got low score on imagination. I think it is accrue to me. I’m think I am quite creativity, I can always have some idea that are really special. The result in this section isn’t  fit to me. 

    #3 – Ethical – Pre assignment 

    CDIO assignment week 3

    Case analysis:

    In this case, Carlos should take the most responsibility. Although she is the victim in the car crash. If she don’t jaywalking, none of this will be happened. This isn’t matter the vehicle is autonomous or not. In this situation, the chance for human driver to avoid accidents is almost impossible. The whole event began because of Carlos’ jaywalking, so she may have larger responsibilities. 

    For the manufacturers, if they release the function that is aggressive on driving. Meens they think the reaction ability is able to handle all the situation. If they can make sure that system doesn’t has any wrong reaction, the responsibility in this accident may become more less. 

    To owners, since there are option for user to choose. As the mention above, the system should handle the driving process. So it is ok for user to set in any kind of setting. The responsibilities of user may be the less. Because it isn’t the passengers’ fault. Although the owner set the setting in the most aggressive mode.

    Advice:

    To pedestrian, please follow the traffic rule. It is very hard to help reduce responsibilities if people don’t comply with the law. There will be less or even seldom accident when pedestrian keep following the rules. 

    For manufacturers, make sure the accurate of any kind of setting. If the failure  chance of this kind of setting will increase in some situations, give a information hint before user to select it. Or don’t provide aggressive setting to user. Make sure the save is the first priority. 

    And for users, determine the driving situation before choosing any setting. Just like you are driving a car. Make the setting is suitable during the driving process. This is not only make sure of others and pessangers’ save. But also make the driving more comfortable. 

    #2 – Technological – Pre assignment 

    CDIO assignment week 2
    1.

    • Global Positioning System (GPS): 

              Locate the vehicle by using satellite to triangular its position. The accurate within sever meters. 

    • Ultrasonic sensor: 

              Provide short distance data that are used in assistance systems and warning systems. 

    • Light Detection and Ranging(LIDAR):

              A 360-degree sensor that uses light beam to determine the distance between obstacles and the sensor.

    • Cameras: 

               Image data collected. 

    • Radio Detection and Ranging(RADAR):

              A sensor the used radio waves to determine the distance. 

    • RAcam:

              Combines a mid-range radar and a forward-facing camera that can identify objects. 

    • Infrared Sensors: 

              Allow for the detection of lane marking, pedestrians, bicycles and others that are hard for other sensor to detect in low light and certain environment condition. 

    Resources:

    http://www.autoconnectedcar.com/2016/09/autonomous-self-driving-through-sensor-fusion-in-2019-with-20-cm-accuracy/

    https://securityledger.com/2016/04/look-mao-no-hands-chinas-roadmap-to-self-driving-cars/

    http://www.css.snre.umich.edu/factsheets/autonomous-vehicles-factsheet


    2.

    How is it currently being used?

    – Self-driving vehicles 

    – Monitor system

    – Handheld rangefinder 

    – Intrusion detection 

    – Aerial scanning 

    – Geology and soil science 

    – Create digital elevation models(DEM)


    * Benefits of LIDAR

    1. Higher accuracy

    2. Fast acquisition and processing

    3. Higher data density

    4. Lidar does not have any geometric distortions like a side-looking radar

    5. Lidar can be integrated with other data sources

    * Drawback of LIDAR

    1. Expensive 

    2. Limited range 

    3. Can be trouble in bad weather conditions such like heavy rain, snow and fog. 

    4. Need to be mounted outside 


    Future potential

    As autonomous vehicles leave the lab and enter the road, 3D mapping of the traffic situation seem to be more and more important. Although having stereo camera might a way to go, but current image processing hardware is nowhere near good enough to detect all the important features with the necessary speed and reliability to ensure safe driving.Lidar works on measurement of the reflection of a transmitted signal.The big advantage of lidar is that the technology enables much smaller objects to be detected. In contrast to cameras, which views its environment, lidar delivers an accurate, relatively detailed 3D rendering. As the price points associated with lidar technology gradually lower, LIDAR may act in a important place of automotive industry. 




    Reference 

    https://www.slideshare.net/mobile/SourabhJain89/applications-of-lidar-technology

    https://www.moea.gov.tw/MNS/doit/industrytech/IndustryTech.aspx?menu_id=13545&it_id=74

    http://home.iitk.ac.in/~blohani/LiDAR_Tutorial/AdvantagesofLiDARtechnology.htm

    http://desktop.arcgis.com/en/arcmap/10.3/manage-data/las-dataset/advantages-of-using-lidar-in-gis.htm

    http://www.eetimes.com/author.asp?section_id=36&doc_id=1330069

    http://www.templetons.com/brad/robocars/cameras-lasers.html

    http://www.alphaunmannedsystems.com/content/what-lidar-technology-and-its-applications

    http://www.hamamatsu.com/us/en/community/mppc/4413.html

    https://www.melexis.com/en/insights/knowhow/how-sensor-technology-shape-cars-future

    http://facet-tech.com/autonomous-vehicles-lidar/


    CDIO assignment week1

    1.
    Human driver monitor the environment
    Level 0: Driver needs to always monitor the drive, no system intervention.
    Level 1: The system can provide some assist to the driver by controlling either the acceleration/deceleration or steering.
    Level 2: System can do both acceleration and steering at the same time, but the driver still need to always pay attention the drive to regain control at any time immediately.

    System monitor the environment
    Level 3: System can determine the driving environment such like recognize the vehicles, road, sign, people…etc. Human need to respond to every situation to make system perform the action.
    Level 4: Built on the base of Level 3. Human no longer need to answer all the system requests. Only in some situations.
    Level 5: No steering wheel, no pedal, no break. System take care all tasks or even better than human.

    2.
    Tesla model S,model X, model 3
    On-ramp to off-ramp: The vehicle will determine when to enter/leave when you reach the exit on the freeway. After depart the freeway, the car will return the control. So far, Tesla has acquire 47 million miles driving data on autopilot.

    WAYMO —– Google
    Fully self driving. Predict the behavior of not only the person, but of all the road users around. 2 million miles of real word experience.

    3.
    Tesla
    hardware 1: Level 2,3 (2014)
    Hardware 2: Level 3,4 (2016)
    Both model can recognize object.
    For hardware 1, the vehicles will need lots of human responds to perform the next action. For example, in hardware 1, the car will not change the lane until the driver want it. But in hardware 2, the car can done all by itself for a faster lane and without driver’s judgement nor input.

    WAYMO
    Level 4 to 5
    It doesn’t has any steering wheel, pedal or break. Just like the description of SAE International of autonomous vehicles. Although it can’t perform it self-driving under high speed. It seems like the closest to fully automation.

    4.
    Find parking space automatically:
    There isn’t alway has parking space available when you want to get of the vehicle. If the car can self drive it self until it find a parking space after we get off the car, it will help us save up more time.

    Predict accident:
    If the system can predict accident by any kind of omen, it can really reduce the chance of second time car crash or even help passengers avoid the car crash that just happen in front of them.

    Remote control:
    Control the car via mobile phone, but it actually just for use to give command for direction or adjust speed. The driving process are still automatic.

    Passengers body condition monitor:
    If people on the vehicle have some symptoms, system can quickly detect and ask for help. If the passenger black out, system will navigate the car to the closest medical facilities.